Five theories of psychology and child motivation

Psychological perspective definition

There was, however, considerable controversy between James and his contemporaries over the exact definition of instinct. Ideas conducted are supported with experiments from labor and birth until adulthood. During the s, Gestalt psychologists such as Kurt Lewin were instrumental in developing the field as something separate from the behavioral and psychoanalytic schools that were dominant during that time. The purpose of biological drives is to correct disturbances of homeostasis. The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce contradictory cognitions by either changing or justifying their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. According to evolutionary theory, those who are the most fit are the most likely to survive, and eventually the population evolves in such a way that their traits manifest themselves across the population. Pineal gland Descartes suggested that the pineal gland was the point of contact between mind and body. The core belief of humanistic psychology was that people are naturally good, deviations from this natural tendency causes mental and social problems. When a physiological need is not satisfied, a negative state of tension is created; when the need is satisfied, the drive to satisfy that need is reduced and the organism returns to homeostasis. The four phases are known as sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete functional and formal operational stages. Once again, only two levels of needs were identified; therefore, people have the ability and competence to recall and estimate the importance of needs.

James proposed several dozen special human instincts, but many of his contemporaries created different lists. This includes all aspects of human growth, including physical, emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual, and personality development.

This study demonstrated how emotions could become conditioned responses. People are motivated by different goals related to achievement, such as mastery or performance goals.

Temporal Motivation Theory Temporal motivation theory emphasizes the impact of time and deadlines on our motivation to complete tasks.

The authors argued that this suggested Maslow's hierarchy may be limited as a theory for developmental sequence since the sequence of the love need and the self-esteem need should be reversed according to age.

William James — was an important contributor to early research into motivation, and he is often referred to as the father of psychology in the United States. For example, if you are in college because you enjoy learning new things and expanding your knowledge, you are intrinsically motivated to be there.

theories of motivation psychology quizlet

Maslow suggested that this is an ongoing, life-long process and that only a small percentage of people actually achieve a self-actualized state. In operant conditioning a reinforcing stimulus is any event that encourages or increases behavior.

Psychodynamic therapy, in which patients become increasingly aware of dynamic conflicts and tensions that are manifesting as a symptom or challenge in their lives, is an approach to therapy that is still commonly used today. Why would an individual actively seek out more stimulation if it is already in a state of relaxation and fulfillment?

Theories of motivation in psychology pdf

Extrinsic Motivation According to incentive theory, behavior is primarily motivated by the incentive of extrinsic factors. Some critics feel this placement of sex neglects the emotional, familial, and evolutionary implications of sex within the community, although others point out that this is true of all of the basic needs. In one review of research about learning goals, for example, students with primarily mastery orientations toward a course they were taking not only tended to express greater interest in the course, but also continued to express interest well beyond the official end of the course and to enroll in further courses in the same subject Harackiewicz, et al. Motivation is an area of psychology that has gotten a great deal of attention, especially in the recent years. However these ideas may or may not work well on every individual, its depends on aspects of one's brain and behavior. Teachers are able to use classical conditioning in the category by making a positive schoolroom environment to assist pupils get the better of anxiousness or fright. He analyse real human by dreams, intimate desires, internal mental issues and the mental life of a child. Psychologists from this camp focus on how you can feel good about yourself by fulfilling your needs and goals. Like the ego, the superego has conscious and unconscious elements. Self-actualization means a complete understanding of who you are, a sense of completeness, of being the best person you could possibly be. Drive Reduction Theory According to Clark Hull , , humans have internal internal biological needs which motivate us to perform a certain way. According to this theory, we are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal, although this level can vary based on the individual or the situation. Extrinsic vs.

So what does that mean?

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Chapter 7: Section 2: Motivation