Hiv aids conclusions

Public health officials must characterize and estimate the magnitude of the risk, which involves considering both the likelihood that infection might occur in various circumstances, and the costs and benefits associated with each of the possible uncertain outcomes.

aids conclusion ppt

The CDC's newly established emerging infectious disease program would also provide valuable information. The Committee found cause for concern when it evaluated the FDA's actions in protecting the public from HIV in the nation's blood supply during the s.

Communication to Physicians and Patients One of the crucial elements of the system for collecting blood and distributing blood products to patients is the means by which to convey concern about the risks inherent in blood products.

conclusion and recommendation of hiv/aids

Once there is an action plan, the Secretary of Health and Human Services must hold the agency leaders accountable for enforcing cooperation in implementing the plan. For example, following the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy ART in the mids, surveillance requirements expanded to include the extent to which providers prescribe ART as indicated, patient adherence to ART, and met and unmet need for care given the demand on the health care system to treat a growing number of people living with HIV McNaghten et al.

No regulatory process should have its information base effectively controlled by an advisory panel. The vaccine did produce strong antibody responses to a region of the HIV surface protein.

In the face of scientific uncertainty, the PHS needs a series of criteria or triggers for taking regulatory or other public health actions to protect the safety of blood and blood products.

Also, further studies may be needed to check that vaccines effective in one clinical trial show similar efficacy in other populations. In addition, agencies need to monitor more systematically the long-term outcomes of blood transfusion and blood product infusion and to think far ahead to anticipate both new technologies and new threats to the safety of the blood supply.

The shield laws have made it difficult, and often impossible, to obtain compensation for HIV infection acquired from blood or blood products. In1, people were diagnosed.

Aids research paper conclusion

As the case studies in Chapter 7 indicate, the failure to communicate adequately about these options prevented many hemophiliacs from making choices in which they accepted responsibility for balancing the risk of AIDS and the risks of bleeding. This group seems to have been organized by the CDC, but there is no record of its operations after August of that year. To be effective in coordinating the various agencies of the PHS, the Blood Safety Director should be at the level of a deputy assistant secretary or higher, and should not be a representative of any single PHS agency. However, the magnitude and consequences of the risk for transfusion and blood product recipients was not known at this time. The outcome of the NHF efforts was that individuals with hemophilia and their families lost faith in the NHF as the rightful steward of their interests. A phased withdrawal would have been a compromise between no withdrawal and immediate total withdrawal. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. The following examples illustrate how regular public discussions of blood safety issues, in the presence of representatives from the relevant organizations' perspectives, could provide an opportunity to hold the organizations with authority accountable for blood safety. The chief concern is that fear of liability will discourage manufacturers from producing a vital public good. The booster vaccine used in this study has been shown to stimulate the production of antibodies against the HIV envelope protein gp Conclusion 4. Further analysis showed that specific antibody responses which also encouraged innate-cell immune responses antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, ADCC were strongly associated with a reduced risk of infection in vaccine recipients. HIV surveillance needs shift over time. Risk Assessment Versus Risk Management A central precept of risk management is to separate the assessment of risk from the management of its consequences NRC
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AIDS: Conclusion on progress made in the fight against AIDS